Birding across South America

On August 28th 2015 Paula and I returned to South America from the UK.  The Andean Wildlife Project resumes and our objective from now on will be more ornithological and in particular to understand why there are so many bird species on this incredible continent.


Where best to start this quest than to head for one of the most avian rich countries in the world, Peru.  To get there we needed to drive right across Argentina, traverse the Andes mountains and then up through the Atacama desert  in Chile and finally to cross the border of Peru at Arica. Birding across South America.

We left Buenos Aires and headed north following the flat marshlands of the Parana river.  This massive series of wetlands is now much reduced, replaced instead by cattle ranching country.  Nevertheless a variety of Egrets, Ibis, Wood Rails and Snail Kites abounded.

Moving east we entered the Chaco ecoregion.  We found that much of the land was degraded and much used as cattle pasture.  Eventually we found a series of sand tracks that penetrated the almost impenetrable thorny scrub, interspersed with candelabra cacti and small low growing acacia type trees. In this area we found Black-crested Finch, Golden-billed Saltators , Duica Finches and Monk Parakeets.


Paula at Chaco campsite




Golden-billed Saltator


The journey northwards from Cordoba to Tucuman took us into an altogether richer agricultural area, where great machines were harvesting the sugar cane.  Picui ground doves swarmed over the plantations and Guira Cuckoos, usually in small groups, were common.  To our west we saw tantalising glimpses of the Andean foothills and longed to reach those verdant valleys where we had spent so many happy hours earlier in the year.  The nearer we got to Tucuman so the Lemon groves increased, trucks piled high with the fruit vied with the even larger trucks carrying sugar cane.

We spent a day with our good friends in Tucuman and also had some necessary minor repairs done to the vehicle, putting new rivets in the steps, which had vibrated out on the poor roads.

Still further north of Salta, passing alongside the transitional forests on the foothills, White-tailed  and Roadside hawks were regularly perched on the larger trees and high above circled Turkey Vultures and the occasional Aguila mora. We passed the turnoff to El Rey National Park; a place we had not visited and wanted to in the future, but our destination in deepest, darkest Peru remained a long way off, we needed to press on.

On Tuesday September 1st we started our climb into the high Andes, into the beautiful  Puna ecoregion where stipa grasses dominated and the few small wetlands held resident Crested Ducks.


Puna with Stipa grasses


Crested Ducks

 We reached the Jama Pass in the late afternoon only to find the border closed.  We spent a fitful night’s sleep in the freezing cold and at an uncomfortable altitude of 4500m.

Crossing the border the next day we climbed even higher onto the Chilean altiplano, an arrestingly stark and barren environment.


Chilean altiplano


We dropped down the western slope of the Andes into San Pedro de Atacama and continued onwards across the Atacama desert and eventually to the Chilean coast at Paposo.  We had visited this area eight months prior and were interested to find if the heavy rains that had occurred after we left had led to a rare flowering of the coastal desert.  There were many small shrubs that were in flower and certainly everything was  much greener, but the spectacular flowering of the bulbous plants had not yet started.


Coastal desert at Poposo

We camped on the shore and were surprised by the number of Snowy Plovers and Seaside Cinclodes.


Snowy Plover


Seaside Cinclodes


Spending more time on the beautiful Chilean coast would have to wait for another time, we had to move on .


Paula driving the Atacama

It took two more days driving north through the endless Atacama desert to reach Arica in the very far north of Chile, the gateway to Peru and the goal of this journey, the famed lush sub-tropical forests of the eastern slope of the Andes.

Penguin Islands

These islands are so good: we have to tell you about them.


For any visiting families, naturalists, wildlife enthusiasts, photographers or birdwatchers they are a ‘must visit location’ in Chile; located north of La Serena in region III and officially called  Reserva Nacional Pinguino de Humboldt.


The reserve consists of three islands. Two of the islands, Isla Choros and Isla Damas are accessed from the small coastal village of Punta Choros. The road to Punta Chorus from the south, Ruta 5, is a poor 60 km, dirt road, but any vehicle can easily drive the road.

In Punta Choros there are plenty of cabins to hire as well as campsites, restaurants galore and fabulous beaches nearby. Boat trips to the islands maintain the local economy, without which the village would be poor and dependent on sea weed gathering and small scale fishing. 


The trips take two and a half hours and most trips spend 1 hour on the Isla Damas.


Isla Choros

Isla Choros


The boats are very well organised and safe.  The trips cost 10,000 pesos (£10) per person + 2,500pesos (£2.50) to the parks authority.


Un barco sale del muelle en Punta Choros

Un barco sale del muelle en Punta Choros


The Punta Choros boats look for a school of Bottlenosed Dolphins which are resident in the seas around Isla Choros and Isla Damas.


Una familia mira delfines narizes de botella

Una familia mira delfines narizes de botella




Delfin nariz de botella

Delfin nariz de botella


These trips also manage to get you close to large numbers of birds, such as  Guanay Cormorants, of which there are tens of thousands.


Una colonia de Guanays

Una colonia de Guanays





Red-legged Cormorants, one of South America’s most beautiful sea birds.


Cena para Lile polluelos

Cena para Lile polluelos

Peruvian Boobies –



Dos Piqueros
Dos Piqueros


and of course, what everyone wants to see,  Humboldt Penguins.  The Isla Choros holds 70% of the world’s population of these captivating birds.


Pinguino de Humboldt

Pinguino de Humboldt

Most boats then go to Isla Damas and allow visitors to stay for an hour.


Isla Damas

Isla Damas


Sometimes there is no rain for years in this area, it is a desert, but a very special desert, a coastal desert where moisture only comes from the unique morning fog blown ashore from the Humboldt current – the Camanchaca.

Were it not for this ethereal and bountiful phenomenon there would be no plantlife whatsoever, as it is these islands and the neighbouring mainland are a wonderland of cacti.


El cactus esta cubierto de liquen

El cactus esta cubierto de liquen

To facilitate the retention of moisture the cacti are covered with lichen, a symbiotic relationship. The grey lichen  drapes around the cacti.  From a distance this gives the island a ghostly appearance as if some deadly disease had invaded the plants, the truth being that this is nature’s way to enable the cacti to survive.


To reach the island of Chanaral a short drive round the coast to the village of Chanaral de Acietuno is required.  The village is small and less popular but the boat trips are very special and just as good as from Punta Choros.


Un barco sale el Puerto de Chanaral de Acietuno

Un barco sale el Puerto de Chanaral de Acietuno


There is no landing on an island but the wildlife is spectacular especially for marine mammals.  Three species of Whale are regularly seen, Fin, Humpback and the mighty Blue.


Ballena jorobada

Ballena jorobada


Colonies of  Sea lion breed around the rocky coast


Lobo marino de un pelo

Lobo marino de un pelo



Even the less common Fur seal can be found, (look at that pointed snout)  –


Lobo fino de dos pelos

Lobo fino de dos pelos



and of course there are plenty of Humboldt Penguins



Pinguino de Humboldt

Pinguino de Humboldt


 as well as their chief  predator,  the Sea Otter.



Nutria de mar, Chungungo.

Nutria de mar, Chungungo.


Sea Otters will take young Penguins and so the adults are forced to nest above the tops of the cliffs on the top of the island out of reach of the otters.  It is a large island so that is no problem for the Penguins except that to reach the sea they have to walk all the way down the cliffs, a good job they have better legs than wings!





The Chilean coast

We had crossed the Andes from Argentina into Chile and journeyed through its flat, fertile central valley, full of oranges, lemons and rich vineyards.


Then up again into the coastal cordillera from the top of which we could see the whole width of this absurdly thin country.


In front of us now lay the Pacific Ocean.  The air that filled our lungs was different, gone was the dust, now a salty scent enticed us towards the blue vastness.


beach at Constitucion


The narrow winding road led us into the village of Horcon and suddenly were surprised to find ourselves at a tiny harbour full of wooden fishing boats.



We had crossed the continent of South America and there, as if to greet us, was a Pelican !


Pelicans bill 2

In this part of the world wherever there are fish and fishermen there will likely be Pelicans and Gulls and this village was no exception.


Coastal fishing nets



Over the next few weeks we gradually moved south along the coast and found that three species of gull were the most common.

Firstly the Kelp Gull –


Kelp Gull

Then the Brown-hooded Gull –


Brown-hooded Gull

And finally the Franklins Gull, although this is a migrant species from North America.


Franklin's Gull



There were few wading birds, except small numbers of Blackish Oystercatcher which are resident all year round.


Blackish Oystercatcher


Through the rushes

For the last three months we have been travelling through the wild, rugged deserts and impenetrable cloud forests of north western Argentina, but now it was time to leave.

 We did so by climbing the circuitous road from Mendoza towards the border with Chile.  As soon as we started to descend the western side of the mighty Andes, it was immediately clear we were entering a completely different floristic region; dry arid lands were replaced by forests and streams. The hot dusty desert air had parched and dried our skin, we longed to be at the ocean.

Heading west as quickly as we could, around the northern suburbs of Santiago and crossing the fertile central valley of this thin country, we encountered the mountains that skirt coastal Chile.  From their summit the deep blue of the Pacific beckoned.

Following the Rapel river valley we approached the sea near to the village of  Navidad  and found a small marsh.

La laguna en Navidad

La laguna en Navidad

 – over which circled a shower of ‘snowflakes’, nesting egrets.


Garzas boyeras, Garcitas bueyeras, Cattle Egrets

Garzas boyeras, Garcitas bueyeras, Cattle Egrets

Better still, this tiny marsh was the home to a flotilla of Black-necked Swans.


Cisnes de cuello negro , Black-necked Swans

Cisnes de cuello negro , Black-necked Swans


We decided to camp here at the marsh, the ocean would have to wait a little longer.


Nuestro camping en Navidad

Nuestro camping en Navidad



The marsh was fringed by a dense margin of rushes but we found one small spot that cattle used to come to drink, here we set up a hide.


Nuestro observatorio para sacar fotos

Nuestro observatorio para sacar fotos


As we slept at night we could hear the distant rollers pounding the cliffs but on this Chilean marsh we found peace and prolific wildlife.

For three days we watched, through the rushes, as the birds left the marsh in the morning to feed on the estuary and then return in the afternoon to feed their young.


Cisnes de cuello negro, Black-necked Swans.

Cisnes de cuello negro, Black-necked Swans.


Sitting silently, unseen in a hide, keeps you in a constant state of expectant suspense. Marsh sounds are weird, there are croaks, groans, high pitched squeals, sploshes and whooshes.  Sometimes there is nothing to watch except the mesmeric reflections in the water.


Los reflejos de los juncos en el agua

Los reflejos de los juncos en el agua

But the life in a marsh is a vibrant one.


Pato real, Pato overo, Chiloe Wigeon.

Pato real, Pato overo, Chiloe Wigeon.



Constantly peering through the vertical lines of the rushes, imagination turns to reality as its inhabitants appear and disappear.




Crias de Cisne de cuello negro, Black-necked Swan cygnets.

Crias de Cisne de cuello negro, Black-necked Swan cygnets.



Swimming –


Coipo crias estan jugando, Coypu youngsters playing.

Coipo crias estan jugando, Coypu youngsters playing.


Creeping –


Tagua de frente roja, Gallareta escudete rojo, Red-fronted Coot

Tagua de frente roja, Gallareta escudete rojo, Red-fronted Coot



Fishing –

Huiravillo, Mirasol comun, Striped-backed Bittern.

Huiravillo, Mirasol comun, Striped-backed Bittern.


Balancing –


Trabajador, Junquero,  Wren-like Rushbird.

Trabajador, Junquero, Wren-like Rushbird.


And cavorting –


 Siete colores , Tachuri siete colores, Many-coloured Rush-tyrant.

Siete colores , Tachuri siete colores, Many-coloured Rush-tyrant.


A few days previously a birdwatcher had said to us that all the birds in Chile were brown and uninteresting. What would he have said had he spent a few hours overlooking this marsh?

What would he have said if he had seen an adult Many-coloured Rush Tyrant ? This tiny reclusive denizen of the rushes would stand up proud in any competition as ‘the most colourful bird in South America’.  In Chile it is called ‘siete colores’, the seven colours!


Siete colores, adulto, Tachuri siete-colores, Adult Many-coloured Rush-Tyrant.

Siete colores, adulto, Tachuri siete-colores,
Adult Many-coloured Rush-Tyrant.

We find the waterfall

We had spent a couple of hours walking up an arid valley, following a tiny stream in the hope it would lead us to a waterfall.  It was the dry season so we didn’t know if the waterfall even existed and if it did, would we see any of the rare White-collared Swifts which had been seen some years before.

Eventually we rounded a curve in the valley and there before us stood the waterfall.

There was nothing pretentious about this waterfall, it was neither imposing or magnificent, but it fitted into its surroundings as naturally as a nut fits into its shell.  At the top of a small cliff, lay a huge boulder around which the water flowed and then down over a red sandstone drop , cascading about sixty feet to a clear pool beneath, but behind the tumbling water there appeared a deep, dark cleft in the cliff.


best waterfall

We were overjoyed to re-discover this watery gem.

Hot and tired we stood beneath, unable to hear one another for the force of the spray hitting the rocks by our feet.

Thank you Swarovski for waterproof binoculars !




The most noticeable bird was not a Swift at all but a stout little passerine, a Grey-flanked Cinclodes.


Grey-flanked Cinclodes

Grey-flanked Cinclodes

The Cinclodes called and then a second bird appeared from around the side of the Canyon, then the first flew round the cascade and disappeared, whilst the other alighted on a nearby boulder, almost directly under the cascading water.  It called again and out from under the boulder appeared a fledgling, which was duly fed by its parent.


grey-flanked Cinclodes at nest

Not to be outdone by a mere bird, I likewise darted under the cascade – only I had both an umbrella and a light !




Once behind the silvery tumult I found myself in a dark dank chasm.  Behind me the cave stretched twenty or so metres and disappeared into a narrow tunnel, where I had no intention of going.  On top of me, water either trickled or poured, depending where I stood.



Light  streaked in from the outside, creating mesmeric rainbows.


Cave colours

The cave walls were wondrously covered in a kaleidoscope of emeralds and browns where mosses, slimes and fungus flourished.


cave walls 2

Slime 1


more cave walls 1

As I turned round and looked up in the hope of seeing a Swift more colourful patterns emerged, this was a beautiful place to be.


cave walls 1



The ground inside the cave was littered with the carcasses of freshwater crabs.  Maybe a small mammal was catching the crabs and bringing them in the cave to eat them and maybe that animal was lurking in the tunnel at the back of the cave.  Whatever was taking the crabs had clearly found a safe and secure place.

Looking down again I saw a live one in the water at my feet.


Cave crab

So we had found the waterfall.


Looking at the waterfall from a distance the cave behind it seemed nothing,  just a black ‘smudge’ across a red rock face.  But penetrating that ‘smudge’ was entering a mysterious place with its unique beauty, a  watery world of colour and patterns.


Standing inside and looking upwards the cave split into multitudinous crevices where black voids were separated by mossy envelopes dripping with water,   Swifts could easily hide in such places.


A Cinclodes flew through the spray and started to probe about in the moss looking for food, it found a long worm and then flew away with it.



searching for food


Once I thought I could see a swift in a hidden crevice, but I wasn’t sure.


The sun outside was high in the sky,  if there were any swifts they would no doubt be away in the clouds catching insects.


Had we hiked along the thorny and arid hillside for nothing, definitely not  !  we had seen a fantastic cave, a beautiful Cinclodes and a strange freshwater crab. But no swifts.


We settled down to wait till sunset, if there were any Swifts that’s when they might return.


See our next blog for news of the swifts.


To a waterfall

In early December we found ourselves in the  Andean foothills west of the city of Mendoza, Argentina, visiting a contact given us by Aves Argentinas,  Andy Elias.  Andy had for many years worked for the National Parks authority and was a renowned local naturalist.  One evening he told us about a waterfall he had visited three years before where he had seen White-collared Swifts.  He wondered if the waterfall would be dry. Would the Swifts still be present?  Would we like to accompany him ? YES!

It was  to be about a 1 to 2 hour walk up an isolated valley at approx 2,300 metres, so we started early, shortly after dawn.  On the rock strewn hillside above us we could see bright white shapes, these were the lovely flowers of the Cacti ‘candicans’,  its fragrant blooms normally open at night and remain open until early morning. The bright white petals and yellow centres attract night pollinators such as moths and bats.


candicans cacti


We continued to walk to the top of a ridge overlooking the valley we were to follow to the waterfall. The image  below shows the valley, we followed the one on the left hand side.  The valley to the right was the one where the celebrated  General  Don Jose de San Martin led 10,000 soldiers, the force that eventually defeated the Spanish and liberated Argentina.



Being at such a height, the habitat was alto-andino, so fairly sparse of vegetation, mostly pampas grasses, Chilka and Altepe shrubs as well as many cacti.


Paula 2

It was a long hot walk as we  followed the stream up the valley, but there were many exciting birds along the way,  Brown-capped Tit-Spinetails , White-winged Black Tyrants and White-winged Doves.


Brown-capped Tit Spinetail

Brown-capped Tit Spinetail


White-winged Dove

White-winged Dove


Arid lands such as this can seem barren and devoid of wildlife. The truth is that life abounds and is even more fascinating because of the amazing adaptations that enable survival.  All the plants in this landscape had mechanisms to deal with the lack of rain and high temperatures, eg small leaves with waxy coatings to reduce water loss.  Some have no leaves at all and photosynthesise by having bright green chlorophyll-laden stems or spines, the Berberis grevilleana for example has vicious spines and is locally named the crucero plant, due to its three sharp thorns.


Berberis grevilleana

Berberis grevilleana

We found a rather special beetle bumbling over some pebbles.  This little animal is beautifully adapted to face the harsh realities of this land.  It has given up the power of flight and so its hard outer covering  is fused together.  Over this domed body a series of delicate channels and ridges can be seen.  At night the insect curls up with its head pointing downwards to rest.  During the night tiny droplets of moisture condense on the dome and this moisture flows down the intricate channels into its mouth. An everyday miracle of evolution and nature.


 Tenebrionidae sp beetle

Tenebrionidae sp beetle

and a lizard, beautifully camouflaged and scurrying between crevices in the rocks.


Diplolaemus lizard or Matuasto

Diplolaemus lizard or Matuasto


Still following the valley stream,  we found a rather special animal, a small freshwater Crab.



Freshwater crabs like this are endemic to Argentina and Chile. There are about 20 species altogether, each confined to its own isolated region. Genetic studies have found them all to be related and it is thought that over the millennia when glaciers covered the Andes, they speciated into the varieties to be found today.


crab in hand_


 In the azure skies above us circled an occasional Condor but no sign of any Swifts.

 On we walked towards the mythical waterfall……..

…..was the waterfall dry? did we find the swifts? See the next blog!



Mammals of the unknown desert.

The word desert conjures up thoughts of camels traversing the lofty sand dunes of the Sahara or kangaroos in the arid expanses of the Australian outback. You get puzzled looks when you talk about the Monte desert of Argentina. Yet this is a great desert; just as hot, just as wild and just as deserted!


Monte landscape 1

Immediately to its east the desert merges into the foothills of the spectacular Andes and to its west the vast flat thorn-bush lands of the Chaco. The Monte stretches over 1500 kilometres down central western Argentina and is one of South America’s great eco-regions. This is a region we wanted to discover for ourselves as well as to photograph its wildlife. After the great Cretaceous ‘break-up’ of the continents, the South American landmass drifted across the ocean for 65 million years.  During this time two groups of mammals, that had previously been present when the landmass was connected to Africa, did supremely well in adapting to their new conditions, rodents and monkeys.  But it was the rodents that adapted beyond all belief to their new environment, some attaining giant hippo-like proportions. These are all extinct, except one, but that animal will  feature in a future blog as it is certainly not a desert animal. Suffice it to say that 40% of all mammals in South America are rodents and many of these do live in the Monte desert.


Monte - Microcavis austraulis or Common Yellow-toothed Cavy

This rodent is a Yellow-toothed Cavy. Cavies are a family of Rodents. There are many species mostly living in desert and arid habitats and one or two species are otherwise known as Guinea-pigs.  We found this species at two locations in the province of Mendoza, in the provincial reserves of Lake Diamante and Laguna Llancanelo.


Monte -Gallea museloides

This is a different species called Microcavia australis.  We photographed it much more to the north, in the Province of Salta in the Los Cardones National Park.  This rodent is diurnal,  but the best time to see it is in the hours around dawn as it climbs into the low llarrea bushes to eat their fresh leaves, from which it derives moisture.


Monte - Grey Fox

Wherever there are small mammals, there will be a predator to eat them and there is no more clever hunter of rodents than the Fox,  this is the endemic Grey Fox.


Monte -Red Fox


There are a number of fox species all confined to Andean  habitats,  This Red Fox or Andean Fox, locally called a Zorro Colorado, is more widely distributed than the Grey Fox,  its range extending the length of the Andes.  This one heard  a small animal underneath the bush, then spent 15 minutes, walking around the bush, peering in one side then another.  Then after a mad digging session successfully emerged with what looked like a rodent.  One swallow and it was gone !



As we were driving across the arid desert lands in Mendoza Province and saw two most peculiar animals run across a sand track.  Quietly we stopped and spent an hour stalking them between the thick mesquite bushes.  They knew of our presence even though we were upwind of them and as we moved slowly they moved faster, always trying to keep hidden. These were the elusive Mara, not a hare or an antelope but another rodent, the fourth biggest rodent in the world !  Very much a rodent of arid lands and the Monte desert in particular.


Camels and their ancestors have a peculiar evolutionary history.  Believe it or not they originated in North America in what is now the Sonoran desert of Arizona and California. They travelled north and colonised Asia and then North Africa.  Much later, only about 1-2 million years ago, they reached South America as part of the Great American Interchange that followed the formation of the Isthmus of Panama.  There are two well known species, the Guanaco and the Vicuna, but it is only the Guanaco that lives at the lower altitude found in the Monte Desert.


Finally, to perhaps the most beautiful rodent in the world, the  Southern Viscacha, closely related to the chinchilla.  We were alerted to a colony of these as we were climbing a rocky outcrop in Salta Province, northern Argentina.  We had heard high pitched whistles as though there was a raptor high above us but some minutes later as we climbed higher, one of these animals made a leap of perhaps 6 metres from one rock to another in front of us.  It looked at us smugly, daring us to come closer.


Monte -Viscacha

Viscachas are vegetarian, eating mosses and lichens in particular.  They live in loose colonies, are highly social and shelter in high rocky crevices.  There are always several keeping guard,  often looking upwards, as  eagles and hawks are their main predators.  It was, of course, their alarm whistles that we had heard as we approached them.


Monte -landscape

Because the Monte desert is so vast and stretches from sub-tropical to quite chilly latitudes it is not surprising that the range of landscapes and their associated plants are hugely variable, but some plant families species, such as cacti, can be found throughout the entire Monte, making it a distinct and rich eco-region.

Spectacular birds of the Southern Yungas forests

We have been so astounded by the richness of the Southern Yungas ecoregion that another visit was necessary. This time to the Eco-Portal de la Piedra lodge in the Santa Barbara region, a mountain range east of Calilegua.  The forested mountains are complex, as you progress upwards you pass through a number of ecologically distinct types.



Southern Yungas forest_

We walked from approximately 1,000m to 2,200m and camped overnight, horses carrying our equipment and food.


On hoseback into the Yungas_

The lower slopes are the domain of the iconic Toco Toucan,  here seen flying over the Quebracho canopy, it’s only in these forests and those in Missiones province, especially around Iguacu falls, that this bird can be seen in Argentina.


Toco over the canopy

Fruiting trees are a magnet for many tropical forest birds like the Toucan


Toco toucan eating


 the Scaly-headed Parrot –


Scaly-headed Parrot

and the Green-cheeked Parakeet


Green-cheeked Parakeet


The lower  transitional forest is more humid and comprises many dense thorny acacia shrubs with taller trees such as the Cebil and Laurels. Tropical Kingbirds, Narrow-billed Woodcreepers, Tropical Parulas, Red-eyed Vireos and White-tailed Doves appeared and then disappeared, almost as if the forest absorbed them back into its greenery.  Big colourful birds are outnumbered by tiny indistinct ones, such as  the Tyrannulets –

A Mottled – cheeked Tyrannulet.


Mottled-cheeked Tyrannulet


We criss-crossed the jungle, following ancient logging trails, dropping down to a stream then up again.  By following precipitous ridges we avoided deep forested ravines, these ridgeways were more open than the forest either side, ideal habitat for the Rufous- collared Nightjar.


Rufous-fronted Nightjar


At around 1500m we entered the rainforest with its moss draped Myrtles and Ceder trees, tall evergreens that provided a dense canopy,  The thorny acacias disappeared, replaced by luxuriant ferns and here we found the  Black-capped Elaenia & Cinnamon Flycatcher, pictured below.


Elainia in the Yungas_

Cinnamon Flycatcher

This was also the home of White-crested and Slaty Elaenias, Grey Flycatchers, inquisitive Plush-coloured Jays, Black-capped Thrushes and  this White-chested Tyrannulet.


White-throated Tyrannulet

  as well as the endemic Yellow-striped Brush Finch.


Yellow-striped Bush Finch

We passed along a narrow, dark, damp, rock strewn pass and were immediately ‘buzzed’ by the tiniest of birds, the rare and local Blue-capped Puffleg.



Blue-crested Puffleg


The following day we explored the montane ‘alisos’ forest above 2100m, home to the nesting Alder Parrot. Above the trees soared the Andean Condor, but the Alder Parrots were keeping quiet, after all they would have eggs by now, we heard a few in the distance even saw several pairs as they passed over the forest canopy but were unable to find a nest in the time we had.    After the breeding season this endangered parrot moves to the lower Transitional forest for the winter and congregates at large roosting sites.

It seems that if we wish to photograph this wonderful bird we will have to return in the winter also.

Battling with biodiversity

The lush forested hills in the foothills of the Andes in NW Argentina, reaching up to 1700 metres, are an immensely valuable source of water for the agricultural lowlands beneath.  For six months of the year from November, the moisture laden winds blow from the Atlantic. These clouds race across the hot dry chaco plains and then in a series of violent thunderstorms drench the greenery of these slopes.  This ‘vertical’ rain combined with the summer heat creates low ephemeral clouds that drift amid the trees, giving rise to cloud forest.  The ‘gift’ these clouds give to the vegetation is a slow magical release of  moisture ‘horizontal rain’. The trees beneath are clothed in moss, lichens, bromeliads and orchids – this is the Yungas !


Selva Yungas forest , Calilegua


 We accessed the area along route 83 and spent a week in this wonderland, in the Calilegua National Park.

 Route 83 into Calilegua N P


One of the rangers of the park is Nicolas, he lives in the park with his partner Soledad and young child, Andina.



The rangers house where Nicolas, Soledad and Andina live.


 Rangers house  in Calilegua


The richness of this national park is due to the three types of distinct forest it contains. The lower slopes a threatened habitat – Piedmont woodland, a little higher the Selva and higher still the Montana forest.  Steep ravines intersect the whole, giving rise to a multitude of complex micro-climates, ecosystems and wildlife.

Swallow-tailed Kite

Swallow-tailed Kite


Female Red-brocket deer

Female Red-brocket deer

Rusty-browed Warbling-Finch

Rusty-browed Warbling-Finch



A dozen lifetimes would not be enough time to see and understand its unique flora and fauna. We could but only raise our binoculars and cameras to that which passed us by, marvelling at the wonders that crossed our path.

Calilegua butterfly



Where ever we walked the variety of nature exploded before us with vibrancy and energy.  We battled to identify what we could, but the odds were overwhelming.   Insects that looked like Crane flies but were multi-coloured and hopped on the ground.  Birds that sang and called but tantalisingly remained hidden in the dense foliage, flocks of parrots that flew noisily overhead.  Trees of every hue, some small and leggy,  others massive that soared into the heavens, this was the Southern Yungas  eco-region.



Spring in Salta

This week we arrived in Salta province, to the Los Cardones national park 3400 m up in the  high Andes.

Valle Encantado

It is springtime but at this  height it’s frosty at night with high 20s at midday.

The birds have just started to arrive in these inspiring mountains,  having spent winter much lower down.  In the autumn we watched  Andean Geese and Andean Flickers around Tafi del Valle at 2000 m.  These past few days we have seen them arrive into the magnificent Andean high grassland ecoregion called the Puna.

Andean goose on migration


Andean Geese on the puna

A few days ago there were no Andean Flickers around but overnight they have arrived. This morning we have seen a dozen or more in the Valle Encantado.  Individuals perched on prominent places such as large boulders and called incessantly to each other.

Andean Flicker

The Andean Flickers are great birds to see, however what is a woodpecker doing at this altitude, where there are no trees.  Simple, they feed on the ground,  eating ants and other tiny insects that they scoop up with long sticky tongues.

The look of a flicker